History of Egypt – www.historyoclock.com

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A view of downtown Cairo and the 6th October Bridge over the Nile from Cairo Tower. The riverfront skyscrapers on the Nile Corniche are the Ramses Hilton Hotel, the Maspero Television Building and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Egypt in brief

Destination Egypt, a Nations Online profile of the transcontinental country situated in northeastern Africa and the Sinai Peninsula in Western Asia (Middle East).
The country borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea to the east. It is bordered by Libya in the west, the Palestinian territory (Gaza Strip) and Israel in the northeast, and Sudan in the south. Egypt shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Turkey and Greece in the Mediterranean Sea, and with Jordan and Saudi Arabia in the Red Sea.

Modern Egypt became independent in 1922. From 1958 until 1961, Egypt was united with Syria as the United Arab Republic.

The Arab Republic of Egypt (its official name) covers an area of 1 million km², which is about twice the size of France or more than twice the size of the US State of California.
Large parts of the country are covered by the sparsely populated desert areas of the Eastern Sahara. The country’s main population is concentrated on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley, the Nile Delta, the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern coastal areas of the Red Sea. Only an estimated 6 to 7% of the territory of Egypt is inhabited.

With 102.2 million inhabitants (2021), Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. The capital and largest city is pfeil r Cairo. Spoken language is Modern Standard Arabic; the colloquial language is the Egyptian-Arabic dialect (Masri).
Egypt has the largest Muslim population in the Arab world; an estimated 85-90% of the population is Sunni Muslim, 10–15% are Coptic Christians. Islam is state religion and controls many aspects of social life.

What is Egypt famous for?

Aerial view of the Giza Pyramids
Aerial view of the Giza Pyramids. In the background is the Great Pyramid of Giza, also known as the Pyramid of Cheops. It is the oldest and largest of the pyramids in the pyramid complex, constructed about 4600 years ago for Khnum Khufu, the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. The pyramid in the foreground was built for the pharaoh Khafre, dating to c. 2570 BCE.
Image: Ahmed al-Badawy

What comes to your mind when you think of Egypt?

The pyramids, the River Nile, oases with date palms, pharaohs like Khufu, Tutankhamun and Ramses II, Egyptian mummies and coffins, Nefertiti, Cleopatra, the Library of Alexandria, River Nile Cruises, the Karnak temples at Luxor, papyrus and Feluccas (sailing boats).

Egypt is most famous for the Nile River, which is considered the longest river in the world and the life source of the country. Except for the Nile Valley and the Delta, most of Egypt’s landscape consists of desert – the eastern part of the Sahara. Egypt’s Western Desert is actually the eastern portion of the Sahara, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea.

Egypt is known for the Great Pyramids of Giza, the greatest royal tombs ever built. The Great Sphinx, the enormous ancient Egyptian stone monument on the Giza Plateau with a lion’s body and a human head.
Abu Simbel, the two huge rock temples from the 13th century BCE, which had to be moved uphill in the 20th century so that they were not flooded by the waters of the dammed Nile.
The Suez Canal is a 190 km (120 mi) long artificial waterway connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean; it is the shortest shipping route between Europe and the countries in South Asia and the Far East.
The Egyptian Museum in Cairo is famous for housing the largest collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world.
The Siwa Oasis is a 50 km long oasis in the Egyptian part of the Libyan Desert.

Arab Republic of Egypt


In about 3100 B.C., Egypt was united under a ruler known as Mena, or Menes, who inaugurated the 30 pharaonic dynasties into which Egypt’s ancient history is divided — the Old and the Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire. The pyramids at Giza (near Cairo), which were built in the fourth dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state.

Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.
The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile are straining resources and putting stress on society. The government has long struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

In January 2011, a popular protest began against the Mubarak government. The objective of the demonstrations was for the removal of President Mubarak from power. Hosni Mubarak ruled the country on 14 October 1981. The former Egyptian politician and a military commander was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during what is today known as the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
(Source: various sources)

Egypt is a member state of the League of Arab States.

Country Profile

Official Name:
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Short form: Misr
Int’l short form: Egypt
Int’l long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

ISO Country Code: eg, EGY

Actual Time: Tue-May-30  03:11
Local Time = UTC +2h
Egypt does not observe Daylight Saving Time (DST) since 2011.

Country Calling Code: +20

Capital City: Cairo (al-Qa hirah)
(pop. estimated 10 million in the metropolitan area)

Other Cities:
Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Giza, Port Said, Suez, Ismailia

Official Sites of Egypt

Egypt's new Parliament Building
Design image of the new Egyptian parliament building in a stripped neoclassicism style. The New Administrative Capital (NAC) in the desert, 45km east of Cairo, is a gigantic project of a planned city that has been under construction since 2015. The New Egyptian Administrative Capital (NAC) east of Cairo is a massive project of a planned city that has been under construction since 2015. Egypt’s new capital comes with a price tag of an estimated $45 -58 billion.
Image: Egypt Ministry of Housing Utilities & Urban Development

Egypt politics takes place in a hard-line autocracy. Since 2011, Egypt has been in a transitional phase, and a valid constitution does not yet exist. Long-time President Husni Mubarak was overthrown in February 2011. Then elected president Mohammed Mursi took office in 2012 but ruled in an authoritarian manner. He was ousted in a military coup in 2013. Since then, military commander and former defense minister Abd al-Fattah as-Sisi has ruled the country. Constitutional amendments were adopted in a tightly controlled referendum in April 2019 that further concentrated power in the hands of President Sisi and authorized him to remain in office until 2030.
The Egyptian government is de jure a semi-presidential system of government; de facto, Egypt is run by a military junta that has taken over the government and, increasingly, the private sector. [CEIP]

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

The Egyptian Presidency
President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Egyptian Government Services Portal
Egypt’s government portal.

Cabinet of Ministers
Official website of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Egypt’s People Assembly
The Egypt Parliament.

Egypt State Information Service
Government news service.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt is offline.

Diplomatic Missions

Egyptian Embassy in Germany
Egyptian Embassy in Berlin
Embassy of Egypt to the U.S.
Embassy of Egypt in Washington D.C.

The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.

Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA)


Nile cruises with Steigenberger's 5-star deluxe ship Omar El Khayam.
Nile cruises on Lake Nasser with Steigenberger’s 5-star deluxe ship Omar El Khayam.
Image: Steigenberger Hotels

Air Cairo
Egyptian low-cost carrier based at Cairo International Airport.

The national flag carrier airline.

Egypt International Airports:
City, Location: Alexandria, Borg El Arab Airport (HBE) and El Nhouza Airport, IATA Airport code: ALY (closed until further notice)
City, Location: Aswan, Daraw Airport, IATA Airport code: ASW
City, Location: Cairo Int’l, IATA Airport code: CAI
City, Location: Hurghada Int’l, IATA Airport code: HRG
City, Location: Luxor, IATA Airport code: LXR
City, Location: Sharm El Sheikh, IATA Airport code: SSH

International Airports around the world

Egyptian National Railways
The national railway of Egypt.

Arab Bridge Maritime
Ferry service joint venture between the governments of Jordan, Egypt and Iraq.

Alexandria Port Authority
Egypt has a total of 15 commercial ports on the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The port of Alexandria is the largest in the country and handles around 55% of Egypt’s international trade.

Suez Canal Authority
The Suez Canal Authority (SCA) manages, operates, uses, maintains and improves the Suez Canal.

Central hall of Ramses Train Station in Cairo
The central hall of Ramses Station. The main railway station of Cairo is located at Ramses Square (Mīdān Ramsīs). The station was built in 1856 as the terminus of the first railroad connection from Alexandria to Cairo.
Image: Mark Fischer

News of Egypt

Egypt Newsstand

Online News from Egypt

The press freedom situation is becoming more and more alarming in Egypt, with frequent waves of raids and arrests. Egypt is now one of the world’s biggest jailers of journalists, with some spending years in detention without being charged or tried, and others being sentenced to long jail terms or even life imprisonment in iniquitous mass trials. [RSF]

The government is a major media player and operates numerous television and radio stations, websites, newspapers and magazines. The largest media company is reportedly owned by the intelligence service.
In recent years, the authorities have increased control over traditional and social media. There is little room for criticism of the government in the traditional media, including the private media. [BBC]

State Information Service
SIS is a state-run news service in major languages.

Egypt News in Arabic
Al-Ahram is Egypt’s daily newspaper with the highest circulation.
Al-Misri al-Yawm
Al-Masry Al-Youm is a privately owned daily newspaper.
Private run newspaper online.
El Tahrir
Home of several Arabic Newspapers.
Al-Yawm al-Sabi is a major Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper.
First Egyptian news portal.

Egypt News in English
Daily News Egypt
Daily News Egypt is an English-language national and international news.
The Egyptian Gazette
The Egyptian Gazette is the oldest English-language daily newspaper in the Middle East.
Egypt Independent
English online version of Al-Masry Al-Youm.
Egypt Today
Egypt’s monthly magazine covers politics, society, culture, travel, and the environment.
Middle East Time
The online edition of the Egypt-based magazine.

Middle East News Agency (MENA)
State-run Egyptian news agency attached to the Ministry of Information.

Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU)
The public broadcaster of Egypt. ERTU operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels; it is run by the Egyptian government.

Dream TV
The private satellite network operates two channels: Dream 1, targeting young viewers and Dream 2, an entertainment channel.

Mehwar TV Channel
The private channel covers current events and has a particular focus on Egyptian topics.

Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU)
The state-run ERTU operates eight national networks and the transnational services of Radio Cairo and Voice of the Arabs.

Arts & Culture of Egypt

Exhibition hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Exhibition hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Image: wolf130265

Arts & Culture


Bibliotheca Alexandrina
An artificial lake and the Granite wall of Bibliotheca Alexandrina with letter carvings of various languages and scripts. The library and cultural center in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria opened in 2002 near the place of the ancient Library of Alexandria.
Image: Kostas Kokkinos

Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a library in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria. The complex also houses a cultural center with museums and galleries, several research institutes, an event center and a planetarium.

Grand Egyptian Museum
The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is under construction. After its inauguration, the Grand Egyptian Museum will be the largest archaeological museum in the world.

Mini Egypt Park
The open-air amusement park near Hurghada offers tours of miniature models of Egypt’s most famous landmarks.

Egyptian Museum
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities was founded in 1835; it is one of the largest museums in the region and houses the world’s oldest collection of Pharaonic art and monuments. The Egyptian Museum in Cairo is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities
The ministry’s guide to Egypt’s monuments and museums.

Visual Arts

Art Talk Egypt
Art Talk Egypt is a Cairo-based art space representing some of Egypt’s contemporary artists.

Gallery Misr
A gallery for modern contemporary art from Egypt in Cairo.

UBUNTU art gallery
Ubuntu Art Gallery is a contemporary art gallery based in Cairo.

Nile Art Gallery
Exhibition space for modern and contemporary Egyptian art.

Cairo Opera House
Cairo Opera House is the city’s main performing arts venue.
Image: Awoisoak

Cairo Opera House
The Cairo Opera House is part of the Cairo National Cultural Center and is the most important theater in the Egyptian capital.

El Mastaba Center for Egyptian Folk Music
A center for various styles of Egyptian folk music.

Cairo Jazz Festival
Annual international jazz festival on the banks of the Nile in Cairo.

Sandbox Festival
Sandbox is an electronic music festival held annually on the beach of El Gouna, north of Hurghada.

Sultan Hassan and Al-Rifa'i mosques in Cairo
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan (left) and Al-Rifa’i mosque (right) in the historic district of Cairo.
Image: neiljs

Business & Economy of Egypt

View of the Suez Canal and Peace Bridge
The Egypt-Japanese Friendship Bridge, also known as the Suez Canal Peace Bridge, connects the African continent with Asia. The 190 km long Suez Canal is one of the busiest and most important waterways in the world; it is the fastest shipping route between Europe and Asia. The 145-year-old waterway is now among the country’s main sources of revenue, thanks to the Covid 19 pandemic, as foreign exchange earnings from remittances and tourism have plummeted.
Image: Luigi Rosa

Economy of Egypt
Egypt’s economy is mainly based on agriculture, industry and services, income from remittances, the Suez Canal and tourism. The country’s main exports are petroleum and natural gas, ready-made garments, cotton, fruits and vegetables, metal products and chemicals.
Egypt’s largest employers are the government, followed by the garment and textile industries and tourism.
Egyptian cotton is world-famous. The country was the world’s largest producer of long-staple cotton, but Egypt’s cotton output has been declining for the past decade. [REUTERS]

Egypt is a major regional media player. The Egyptian press is one of the most influential and widely read in the region. The television and film industries supply much of the Arabic-speaking world with broadcasts from Media Production City.

Bank al-Markaz al-Misr
Central Bank of Egypt.

National Bank of Egypt
NBE is the oldest commercial bank in Egypt.

Egyptian Exchange (EGX)
The union of two exchanges, the Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchanges.

Nile Stock Exchange (NILEX)
The market for growing medium and small companies.

Egyptian Stocks
Egyptian capital market stock quotes and market watch.

Egyptian Exporters Association
EEA is a non-profit organization founded by the Egyptian private sector exporters.

Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources
The Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources was established in March 1973 to manage the political role of petroleum resources before the war of 1973.

Egypt Yellow Pages
Egypt Yellow Pages is the official publisher of Yellow Pages in Egypt.

Major Companies in EgyptList of major companies in Egypt

Tourism in Egypt

Red Sea beach at Nuweiba, Sinai Peninsula
View of the beach at Nuweiba, a coastal town on the eastern side of the Sinai Peninsula in the Asian part of Egypt. The port city lies between the Sinai mountains and the Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea. There is a ferry service between Nuweiba and the city of Aqaba in Jordan.

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